Significance of Infinity in Physics and Life
RKDas (MSc- Physics, Banaras Hindu University, India)
The author is trying to prove the existence of infinity and infinite energy in the entire universe. By doing so, he raises some basic questions against the profoundly established concepts of prevalent physics.
Introduction to Infinity
In Sanskrit, infinity is termed as ananta, which is something without any limit or end. It is synonymous with Sanskrit term puurna, the full and complete. There is a phonetically similar term apeiron in Greek that stands for potentially unlimited or indefinite.
A specific beauty of the concept of puurna is such that ‘even if a puurna is subtracted or taken out of the puurna, the remainder is but an unreduced puurna itself (puurnasya puurnam aadaaya puurnam eva avashishyate).’ Following the same ideology, a practical statement may be made: the infinity is a one single entity, if there are many infinities, where is the room for placing more than one such infinity? Possibility of multiple infinities defies the basic requirements of infinity, which is not finite or limited.
Review of Zero and Infinity
Zero is a number. The zero, just as a number does exist in reality. It is such a small number or the smallest possible quantity that it is equal to nothing. Zero is an imaginary concept. In reality, ‘zero content’ does not exist; the zero is a no entity; the zero is without a true existence. There is no true zero. Zero is like a pure untruth.
Zero is a greatly useful tool for arithmetic operations. Read more…
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Download an excellent collection of questions with answers for CBSE Class 12 Physics
Question Bank in Physics Class XII
The collection will also be helpful for students of other syllabuses.
The file consists of syllabus, key points, collection of very short Answer (1 mark), Short answer type question – solved (2 marks), short answers (3 marks), Long answers (5 marks), Solved numericals and 3 sample papers.
The contents are arranged chapter-wise. Any student will find this a boon for easy preparation and to score better marks in Physics.
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I am sure solar energy requires no introduction. Today India is being rocked by issues like the Nuclear proliferation treaty, coal scam etc. These are primarily because of the impending energy crisis that the world will come face to face with soon enough. And India is going to be one of the worst affected as it is one of the most densely populated countries. We recently got a glimpse of what might happen when fossil fuels get exhausted when there was a massive grid failure in the northern parts of the country. It was because of the fact that some of the states drew more than excess power that caused the generators to slow down thus disrupting the entire grid. It exposed the country’s dependence on fossil fuels only and the impending need to promote renewable energy sources. Sadly our policy makers are not too concerned with tapping alternative energy sources while all efforts to do so(nuclear power) is met with opposition for petty politics.
However there are plenty of other sources as well. While hydel power is a prospective source of energy in India it is consequential because it can damage fragile ecosystems and displace entire populations. Then naturally Solar energy seems to be the logical choice.
So what’s stopping them from adopting solar energy?
b) Erratic supply
Yes like any other new product in the market costs determine how effectively it can be implemented. The biggest problem with solar energy is that it is very expensive. Yes it takes about 2000$ just to install solar Photovoltaic(PV) modules plus even in the well developed sunny states of the U.S. the cost of solar cells is about 0.11$ / kWh. Now that really is expensive if you compare it in the Indian currency.
b) Erratic supply
Yes it is true that India has a huge amount of solar radiation input being in the tropics and everything working out to be fine India should be having more than enough energy to compensate for the energy needs of the country. BUT we should also try to remember that India is a place where the monsoons cover the Indian skies with clouds for a considerable part of the year too. This does deter the energy supply and this would have been a cause of great distress among the millions as energy demands are high and an uninterrupted supply is necessary in many parts of the country. Plus supply during the night time would be a huge problem as there is no effective way to store energy obtained during the day.
But what exactly is a photovoltaic cell?
A photovoltaic cell uses photons from the sun’s energy spectrum and converts it into kinetic energy of electrons.
It has an antireflective coating at the top to remove any sort to prevent loss of solar energy by reflection. As can be seen from the diagram, The photons strike the electrons at the junction of the p type and n type semiconductors to create a voltage difference. This voltage causes a current to flow in the closed circuit.
If solar energy needs no investment other than maintenance to continue then why should the initial high cost be a problem?
Well the problem comes from the fact that efficiency of solar PV cells is very small. Typical energy efficiencies are about 8 to 10% today. In fact all the major corporations of the world are working on increasing efficiencies as you read this article.
As you can see the technology used increases efficiency a lot. But what is not mentioned here is that the cost of increasingly complex technology is quite high. Efficiency determines the fate of new technology as solar pv cells are no exception.
But that does not mean that solar energy does not hold promise. For it has been calculated that the amount of solar radiation the earth receives at the sea level is more than enough to supply 8 times the energy requirements of the World’s population.
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All CBSE Schools are conducting the SA1 (First Summative Assessment) in the month of September (Kendriya Vidyalayas have already started). At this point, we found it would be useful to the students to have a set of sure shot questions. Practising these will essentially help you score better marks in the forthcoming exams.
Portions for SA1
MOTION, FORCE AND WORK (Motion, Force and Newton’s Laws of motion, Gravitation)
Long Answer Type Questions
- Derive equations of uniformly accelerated motion using graphical representation of motion.
- Derive F=ma
- State the law of conservation of linear momentum. Illustrate with an example
- State and explain Archimedes’ principle.
- Describe an experiment to verify Archimedes’ principle.
- Distinguish density and relative density.
- What are the effects produced by force?
- What is friction? How is it caused? How can it be reduced?
- Define impulse of a force.
- Why does a cricket fielder pulls his hands backwards while taking a catch?
- Define inertia and explain its types with suitable examples.
- Describe two instances each where pressure is increased by decreasing the area and pressure is decreased by increasing hte area.
- State Newton’s universal law of gravitation
- Define G.
- Distinguish g and G
- Why motion and rest are said to be relative terms?
- Define acceleration due to gravity at a place and discuss its variation with height, depth and latitude.
- Write the differences between mass and weight.
- Can an object be accelerated if it is moving with constant speed? Justify your answer with an example
- Why is a person hurt more when he falls on a concrete floor than when he falls on a heap of sand from the same height?
- The weight of an object on the surface of moon is 1.67N and its mass on its surface is 1 kg. Calculate its weight and mass on the surface of earth, (g on earth = 10 m/s2).
- When a horse suddenly starts running, a careless rider falls backwards. Explain why?
- State the action and reaction in the swimming action of a swimmer.
- A stone is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 40 m/s and is caught back. Taking g=10 m/s2, calculate the maximum height reached by the stone.What is the net displacement and the total distance covered by the stone?